Use the neonUtilities Package to Access NEON Data
This tutorial goes over how to use the neonUtilities R package (formerly the neonDataStackR package).
The package contains 5 functions:
stackByTable()Takes zip files downloaded from the Data Portal or downloaded by
zipsByProduct(), unzips them, and joins the monthly files by data table to create a single file per table.
zipsByProduct()A wrapper for the NEON API; downloads data based on data product and site criteria. Stores downloaded data in a format that can then be joined by
getPackage()A wrapper for the NEON API; downloads one site-by-month zip file at a time.
byFileAOP()A wrapper for the NEON API; downloads remote sensing data based on data product, site, and year criteria. Preserves the file structure of the original data.
transformFileToGeoCSV()Converts any NEON data file in csv format into a new file with GeoCSV headers.
If you are only interested in joining data
files downloaded from the NEON Data Portal, you will only need to use
stackByTable(). Follow the instructions in the first two sections,
neonUtilities and use
stackByTable(), and you're done.
This package is intended to provide a toolbox of basic functionality for working with NEON data. It currently contains the functions listed above, but it is under development and more will be added in the future. To report bugs or request new features, post an issue in the GitHub repo issues page.
First, we must install and load the
# install neonUtilities - can skip if already installed install.packages("neonUtilities") # load neonUtilities library (neonUtilities)
Join data files: stackByTable()
stackByTable() joins the month-by-site files from a data
download. The output will yield data grouped into new files by table name.
For example, the single aspirated air temperature data product contains 1
minute and 30 minute interval data. The output from this function is one
.csv with 1 minute data and one .csv with 30 minute data.
Depending on your file size this function may run for a while. For example, in testing for this tutorial, 124 MB of temperature data took about 4 minutes to stack. A progress bar will display while the stacking is in progress.
Download the Data
To stack data from the Portal, first download the data of interest from the
NEON Data Portal.
To stack data downloaded from the API, see the
Your data will download from the Portal in a single zipped file.
The stacking function will only work on zipped Comma Separated Value (.csv) files and not the NEON data stored in other formats (HDF5, etc).
The example data below are single-aspirated air temperature.
To run the
stackByTable() function, input the file path to the
downloaded and zipped file.
# stack files - Mac OSX file path shown stackByTable(filepath="~neon/data/NEON_temp-air-single.zip") Unpacking zip files |=========================================================================================| 100% Stacking table SAAT_1min |=========================================================================================| 100% Stacking table SAAT_30min |=========================================================================================| 100% Finished: All of the data are stacked into 2 tables! Copied the first available variable definition file to /stackedFiles and renamed as variables.csv Stacked SAAT_1min which has 424800 out of the expected 424800 rows (100%). Stacked SAAT_30min which has 14160 out of the expected 14160 rows (100%). Stacking took 6.233922 secs All unzipped monthly data folders have been removed.
From the single-aspirated air temperature data we are given two final tables. One with 1 minute intervals: SAAT_1min and one for 30 minute intervals: SAAT_30min.
In the same directory as the zipped file, you should now have an unzipped directory of the same name. When you open this you will see a new directory called stackedFiles. This directory contains one or more .csv files (depends on the data product you are working with) with all the data from the months & sites you downloaded. There will also be a single copy of the associated variables.csv and validation.csv files, if applicable (validation files are only available for observational data products).
These .csv files are now ready for use with the program of your choice.
Other input options in
savepath : allows you to specify the file path
where you want the stacked files to go, overriding the default.
saveUnzippedFiles : allows you to keep the unzipped, unstacked
files from an intermediate stage of the process; by default they
stackByTable(filepath="~neon/data/NEON_temp-air-single.zip", savepath="~data/allTemperature", saveUnzippedFiles=T)
Download files to be stacked: zipsByProduct()
zipsByProduct() is a wrapper for the NEON API, it
downloads zip files for the data product specified and stores them in
a format that can then be passed on to
One of the inputs to
zipsByProduct() is the data product ID, or
DPID, of the data you want to download. The DPID can be found in the
data product box on the
new data browse page, or in
data product catalog.
It will be in the form DP#.#####.###; the DPID of single aspirated air
temperature is DP1.00002.001.
Input options for
dpID: the data product ID, e.g. DP1.00002.001
site: either the 4-letter code of a single site, e.g. HARV, or "all", indicating all sites with data available
package: either basic or expanded data package
avg: either "all", to download all data (the default), or the number of minutes in the averaging interval. See example below; only applicable to IS data
savepath: the file path you want to download to; defaults to the working directory
check.size: T or F: should the function pause before downloading data and warn you about the size of your download? Defaults to T; if you are using this function within a script or batch process you will want to set it to F.
Here, we'll download single-aspirated air temperature data from Harvard Forest (HARV).
zipsByProduct(dpID="DP1.00002.001", site="HARV", package="basic", check.size=T) Continuing will download files totaling approximately 121.470836 MB. Do you want to proceed y/n: y trying URL 'https://neon-prod-pub-1.s3.data.neonscience.org/NEON.DOM.SITE.DP1.00002.001/PROV/HARV/20141001T000000--20141101T000000/basic/NEON.D01.HARV.DP1.00002.001.2014-10.basic.20171010T150911Z.zip?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20180409T214634Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=3600&X-Amz-Credential=pub-internal-read%2F20180409%2Fus-west-2%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=1349949ab91294c564250825007e50315967655a1d0e1a4392d19f310e910654' Content type 'application/zip' length 1593260 bytes (1.5 MB) ================================================== downloaded 1.5 MB (Further URLs omitted for space. Function returns a message for each URL it attempts to download from) 36 zip files downloaded to /Users/neon/filesToStack00002
Downloaded files can now be passed to
stackByTable() to be
stacked. Another input is required in this case,
For many sensor data products, download sizes can get
very large, and
stackByTable() takes a long time. The
1-minute or 2-minute files are much larger than the
longer averaging intervals, so if you don't need high-
frequency data, the
avg input option lets you choose
which averaging interval to download.
This option is only applicable to sensor (IS) data, since OS data are not averaged.
Download only the 30-minute data for triple-aspirated air temperature at HARV:
zipsByProduct(dpID="DP1.00003.001", site="HARV", package="basic", avg=30, check.size=T) Continuing will download files totaling approximately 5.56142 MB. Do you want to proceed y/n: y trying URL 'https://neon-prod-pub-1.s3.data.neonscience.org/NEON.DOM.SITE.DP1.00003.001/PROV/HARV/20141001T000000--20141101T000000/basic/NEON.D01.HARV.DP1.00003.001.000.060.030.TAAT_30min.2014-10.basic.20171014T082555Z.csv?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20180523T221132Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=3599&X-Amz-Credential=pub-internal-read%2F20180523%2Fus-west-2%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=2a52fb43a773d3c91af41f44796876779a0d5ba041be39e4e73fc0a8d2e71b7a' Content type 'application/octet-stream' length 56534 bytes (55 KB) ================================================== downloaded 55 KB (Further URLs omitted for space. Function returns a message for each URL it attempts to download from) 76 files downloaded to /Users/neon/filesToStack00003
And the 30-minute files can be stacked as usual:
Download a single zip file: getPackage()
If you only need a single site-month (e.g., to test code
you're writing), the
getPackage() function can be used to
download a single zip file. Here we'll download the
November 2017 temperature data from HARV.
getPackage("DP1.00002.001", site_code="HARV", year_month="2017-11", package="basic")
The file should now be saved to your working directory.
Download remote sensing files: byFileAOP()
Remote sensing data files can be very large, and NEON remote sensing
(AOP) data are stored in a directory structure that makes them easier
byFileAOP() downloads AOP files from the API while
preserving their directory structure. This provides a convenient way
to access AOP data programmatically.
Be aware that downloads from
byFileAOP() can take a VERY long time,
depending on the data you request and your connection speed. You
may need to run the function and then leave your machine on and
downloading for an extended period of time.
Here the example download is the Ecosystem Structure data product at Hop Brook (HOPB) in 2017; we use this as the example because it's a relatively small year-site-product combination.
byFileAOP("DP3.30015.001", site="HOPB", year="2017", check.size=T) Continuing will download 36 files totaling approximately 140.3 MB . Do you want to proceed y/n: y trying URL 'https://neon-aop-product.s3.data.neonscience.org:443/2017/FullSite/D01/2017_HOPB_2/L3/DiscreteLidar/CanopyHeightModelGtif/NEON_D01_HOPB_DP3_716000_4704000_CHM.tif?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20180410T233031Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=3599&X-Amz-Credential=pub-internal-read%2F20180410%2Fus-west-2%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=92833ebd10218f4e2440cb5ea78d1c8beac4ee4c10be5c6aeefb72d18cf6bd78' Content type 'application/octet-stream' length 4009489 bytes (3.8 MB) ================================================== downloaded 3.8 MB (Further URLs omitted for space. Function returns a message for each URL it attempts to download from) Successfully downloaded 36 files. NEON_D01_HOPB_DP3_716000_4704000_CHM.tif downloaded to /Users/neon/DP3.30015.001/2017/FullSite/D01/2017_HOPB_2/L3/DiscreteLidar/CanopyHeightModelGtif NEON_D01_HOPB_DP3_716000_4705000_CHM.tif downloaded to /Users/neon/DP3.30015.001/2017/FullSite/D01/2017_HOPB_2/L3/DiscreteLidar/CanopyHeightModelGtif (Further messages omitted for space.)
The files should now be downloaded to a new folder in your working directory.
Convert files to GeoCSV: transformFileToGeoCSV()
transformFileToGeoCSV() takes a NEON csv file, plus its
corresponding variables file, and writes out a new version of the
headers. This allows for compatibility with data
and other facilities.
transformFileToGeoCSV() are the file path to the data
file, the file path to the variables file, and the file path where
you want to write out the new version. It works on both single
site-month files and on stacked files.
In this example, we'll convert the November 2017 temperature data
from HARV that we downloaded with
getPackage() earlier. First,
you'll need to unzip the file so you can get to the data files.
Then we'll select the file for the tower top, which we can
identify by the 050 in the VER field (see the
file naming conventions
page for more information).
transformFileToGeoCSV("~/NEON.D01.HARV.DP1.00002.001.000.050.030.SAAT_30min.2017-11.basic.20171207T181046Z.csv", "~/NEON.D01.HARV.DP1.00002.001.variables.20171207T181046Z.csv", "~/SAAT_30min_geo.csv")