About Field Sites
Lewis Run (LEWI) is an aquatic NEON field site located about 60 miles west of Washington, D.C. in Clarke County, Virginia. Lewis Run is a small wadeable stream that drains a 11.9 km2 (2940 acre) watershed. The majority of the stream reach flows past and through land managed by Casey Trees, a nonprofit organization that raises trees for planting in and around the Washington, D.C. area. The surrounding region is characterized by general land use types including successional fields, pastures, woodlands, and small ponds. This site is located within NEON's Mid-Atlantic Domain (D02), a densely populated region bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east and stretching down the Eastern Seaboard from southern New Jersey to northern Georgia. The Mid-Atlantic Domain includes one other aquatic site and two terrestrial sites. LEWI is located near the BLAN terrestrial site.  
The climate here is temperate and humid, with annual mean temperatures of 12.2°C (54°F). The coldest month of the year is January with an average temperature of -1.8°C (28.76°F), while July is the warmest month with an average temperature of 23.3°C (73.94°F). On average, this location gets a total of 976 mm (38 in.) of precipitation annually. May is the wettest month with an average monthly precipitation of 114.3 mm (4.5 in.) and February is the driest with only 63.5 mm (2.5 in.) of precipitation.  
Lewis Run is located on land that is part of the Elbrook Formation. This formation is characterized by the presence of limestone, dolomite, shale, and siltstone.  
The substrate of Lewis Run consists of gravel, soft sands, and silt. Probing at the stream during site characterization in January 2016 showed significant portions of the stream channel where very soft, unconsolidated deposits of silt are present. Unconsolidated silt deposits range in depth from a few centimeters to over half a meter throughout the entire stream reach surveyed. 
Lewis Run is a small 2nd-order wadeable stream. The stream banks at LEWI on average are very steep and actively eroding, resulting in significant portions of the stream channel containing unconsolidated deposits of silt. Unconsolidated silt deposits range in depth from a few centimeters to over half a meter throughout the entire stream reach. The stream’s substrate composition is gravel, soft sands, and silt. 
Riparian vegetation at LEWI is comprised of moderately spaced, largely mature oak and poplar trees with moderately dense ground cover of tall grasses and briar bushes. Vegetation is largely dormant during the winter and fall months, with dense vegetation growing near the stream channel in the spring and summer. 
Common fish species found in Lewis Run are Potomac sculpin (Cottus girardi), Creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), Eastern blacknose dace (Rhinichthys atratulus), and Rosyside dace (Clinostomus funduloides). The area Lewis Run is located in is home to a variety of terrestrial fauna as well. Some notable species include black bear (Ursus americanus), bobcat (Lynx rufus), white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), and beavers (Castor canadensis).  
Past Land Management and Use
The majority of Lewis Run flows through the Casey Tree Farm property, a 2.95 km2 (730 acre) tract of land located in Clarke County, Virginia. Casey Trees is a nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C. Their mission is to protect, restore, and enhance the tree canopy in the nation’s capital. The 730 acres of land and its existing structures were gifted to Casey Trees in 2008. In 2011, Casey Trees started their own nursey to grow trees that are not readily available commercially. Originally in the 1600s, the land was part of a 5 million acre estate owned by Lord Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord of Fairfax of Cameron. Over time, the 5 million acres were subdivided and sold; upon Thomas Fairfax’s death in 1671 the Commonwealth of Virginia confiscated the remaining land and sold it to the public. In 1933, much of the land that would become Casey Trees Farm was bequeathed by Charles McCormick’s family to All Saints Episcopal Church. The church then sold the land to Marie and George Greenhalgh. From 1935 to 1937, the Greenhalghs would buy additional properties and assemble them into the 730-acre tract that exists today. Eugene and Betty Brown Casey purchased the farm in 1958 from the Greenhalghs with the intention of using it as a summer home. In 2002, Betty Brown Casey founded the nonprofit Casey Trees, and in 2008, she donated the property to Casey Trees. 
Current Land Management and Use
Lewis Run is nestled on a 2.95 km2 (730 acre) tract of mixed agriculture and woodlands owned by the Casey Trees organization. Casey Trees uses the property primarily as a tree nursery to accomplish their mission of restoring, enhancing, and protecting tree canopy in Washington, D.C. The nursery focuses on using innovative growing and irrigating techniques to cultivate tree species not readily available commercially. In addition to the nursery, the property includes historic buildings, gardens, and hay fields. 
NEON Site Establishment
Site characterization was completed for Lewis Run at the end of May 2016. By early October 2016, the site readiness review was complete. AOS data collection at Lewis Run started in February 2017 and AIS data collection started in June 2017.
Aquatic Instrument System (AIS) Site Characterization Report: Domain 02. NEON.DOC.001589vB
Casey Tree Farm. (2019, June 12). Retrieved from https://caseytrees.org/about-us/casey-tree-farm/
 U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia. https://mrdata.usgs.gov/mrds/
 Hubbard, D. A. (1990). Geologic map of Clarke County, Virginia (102). Retrieved from https://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_39813.htm
 Nelms, D. L., & Moberg, R. M. (2010). Preliminary Assessment of the Hydrogeology and Groundwater Availability in the Metamorphic and Siliciclastic Fractured-Rock Aquifer Systems of Warren County, Virginia. Retrieved from https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2010/5190/pdf/sir2010-5190.pdf
 NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network). 2020. Data Product DP1.20107.001, Fish electrofishing, gill netting, and fyke netting counts. Provisional data downloaded from http://data.neonscience.org on May 8, 2020.
 Wildlife Information, Virginia DGIF. (2020). Retrieved from https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/information/
 PRISM Climate Group, Oregon State University, http://prism.oregonstate.edu, created 4 Feb 2004.
 Nelms, D. L., & Moberg Jr., R. M. (2005). Hydrogeology and groundwater availability in Clarke County, VA: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5112. 119 p. Retrieved from https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2010/5112/pdf/sir20105112.pdf.
Remote sensing surveys of this field site collect lidar, spectrometer and high-resolution RGB camera data.
This site has one meteorological station located in the riparian area. The met station is outfitted with a subset of the same sensors used at terrestrial sites. Measurements include wind speed and direction, air temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, shortwave radiation, and PAR.
Field Site Data
Casey Tree Farm
Site Access Allowed
Site Access Details
Research on the Casey Tree Farm is limited - coordination required with farm management.
NEON Field Operations Office
NEON Field Operations Address
1500 Remount Road
MRC 5560, Bldg 90
Front Royal, VA 22630
NEON Field Operations Phone
Mean Annual Temperature
Mean Annual Precipitation
Dominant NLCD Classes
Average minimum greenness date
USGS Geology Unit
USGS Geology Name
USGS Lithologic Constituents
Dolostone and limestone with lesser shale and siltstone
USGS Geology Age
Other Domain D02 Field Sites
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